In this paper, we present a sample-based approach for surface coloring, which is independent of the original surface resolution and representation. To achieve this, we introduce the Orthogonal Fragment Buffer (OFB)-an extension of the Layered Depth Cube-as a high-resolution view-independent surface representation. The OFB is a data structure that stores surface samples at a nearly uniform distribution over the surface, and it is specifically designed to support efficient random read/write access to these samples. The data access operations have a complexity that is logarithmic in the depth complexity of the surface. Thus, compared to data access operations in tree data structures like octrees, data-dependent memory access patterns are greatly reduced. Due to the particular sampling strategy that is employed to generate an OFB, it also maintains sample coherence, and thus, exhibits very good spatial access locality. Therefore, OFB-based surface coloring performs significantly faster than sample-based approaches using tree structures. In addition, since in an OFB, the surface samples are internally stored in uniform 2D grids, OFB-based surface coloring can efficiently be realized on the GPU to enable interactive coloring of high-resolution surfaces. On the OFB, we introduce novel algorithms for color painting using volumetric and surface-aligned brushes, and we present new approaches for particle-based color advection along surfaces in real time. Due to the intermediate surface representation we choose, our method can be used to color polygonal surfaces as well as any other type of surface that can be sampled.
A.N.M. Imroz Choudhury, M.D. Steffen, J.E. Guilkey, S.G. Parker. Enhanced Understanding of Particle Simulations Through Deformation-Based Visualization, In Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol. 63, No. 2, pp. 117--136. 2010.
T. Fogal, H. Childs, S. Shankar, J. Krüger, R.D. Bergeron, P. Hatcher. Large Data Visualization on Distributed Memory Multi-GPU Clusters, In Proceedings of High Performance Graphics 2010, pp. 57--66. 2010.
B.M. Isaacson, J.G. Stinstra, R.S. MacLeod, P.F. Pasquina, R.D. Bloebaum.
Developing a Quantitative Measurement System for Assessing Heterotopic Ossification and Monitoring the Bioelectric Metrics from Electrically Induced Osseointegration in the Residual Limb of Service Members, In Annals of Biomedical Engineering, Vol. 38, No. 9, pp. 2968-–2978. 2010.
PubMed ID: 20458630
F. Jiao, J.M. Phillips, J.G. Stinstra, J. Kueger, R. Varma, E. Hsu, J. Korenberg, C.R. Johnson. Metrics for Uncertainty Analysis and Visualization of Diffusion Tensor Images, In Proceedings of the 5th international conference on Medical imaging and augmented reality (MIAR), Beijing, China, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg pp. 179--190. September, 2010.
Total subcutaneous implantable subcutaneous defibrillators are in development, but optimal electrode configurations are not known.
In this paper we present a novel approach to generate proxy geometry for slice based volume rendering. The basic idea is derived from the behavior of a ray-caster and is a simple extension of the well known 2D object-aligned texture stack based technique. From this our novel scheme inherits the advantage that it enables hardware-based volume rendering for devices that do not support 3D textures. On these devices previous object-aligned 2D texture based approaches suffered from disturbing view angle dependent stack-switching artifacts which are avoided by our novel method. Our approach also shows benefits compared to the widely used view aligned slicing algorithm as it avoids jagged boundary artifacts and increases performance.
S.S. Kuppahally, N. Akoum, N.S. Burgon, T.J. Badger, E.G. Kholmovski, S. Vijayakumar, S.N. Rao, J. Blauer, E.N. Fish, E.V. Dibella, R.S. Macleod, C. McGann, S.E. Litwin, N.F. Marrouche.
Left atrial strain and strain rate in patients with paroxysmal and persistent atrial fibrillation: relationship to left atrial structural remodeling detected by delayed-enhancement MRI, In Circ Cardiovasc Imaging, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 231--239. 2010.
PubMed ID: 20133512
Atrial fibrosis is a hallmark of atrial structural remodeling (SRM) and leads to structural and functional impairment of left atrial (LA) and persistence of atrial fibrillation (AF). This study was conducted to assess LA reverse remodeling after catheter ablation of AF in mild and moderate-severe LA SRM.
Catheter ablation was performed in 68 patients (age 62 ± 14 years, 68% males) with paroxysmal (n = 26) and persistent (n = 42) AF. The patients were divided into group 1 with mild LA SRM (10%, n = 37) by delayed enhancement magnetic resonance imaging (DEMRI). Two-dimensional echocardiography, LA strain, and strain rate during left ventricular systole by velocity vector imaging were performed pre and at 6 ± 3 months postablation. The long-term outcome was monitored for 12 months.
Patients in group 1 were younger (57 ± 15 vs 66 ± 13 years, P = .009) with a male predominance (80% vs 57%, P < .05) as compared to group 2. Postablation, group 1 had significant increase in average LA strain (??: 14% vs 4%, P < .05) and strain rate (??: 0.5 vs 0.1 cm/s, P < .05) as compared to group 2. There was a trend toward more patients with persistent AF in group 2 (68% vs 55%, P = .2), but it was not statistically significant. Group 2 had more AF recurrences (41% vs 16%, P = .02) at 12 months after ablation.
Mild preablation LA SRM by DEMRI predicts favorable LA structural and functional reverse remodeling and long-term success after catheter ablation of AF, irrespective of the paroxysmal or persistent nature of AF.
In this paper we propose a supervised 3D segmentation algorithm to locate the esophagus in thoracic CT scans using a variational framework. To address challenges due to low contrast, several priors are learned from a training set of segmented images. Our algorithm first estimates the centerline based on a spatial model learned at a few manually marked anatomical reference points. Then an implicit shape model is learned by subtracting the centerline and applying PCA to these shapes. To allow local variations in the shapes, we propose to use nonlinear smooth local deformations. Finally, the esophageal wall is located within a 3D level set framework by optimizing a cost function including terms for appearance, the shape model, smoothness constraints and an air/contrast model.
J.A. Levine, D.J. Swenson, Z. Fu, R.S. MacLeod, R.T. Whitaker. A Comparison of Delaunay Based Meshing Algorithms for Electrophysiological Cardiac Simulations, In Virtual Physiological Human, pp. 181--183. 2010.
C. Mahnkopf, T.J. Badger, N.S. Burgon, M. Daccarett, T.S. Haslam, C.T. Badger, C.J. McGann, N. Akoum, E. Kholmovski, R.S. Macleod, N.F. Marrouche.
Evaluation of the left atrial substrate in patients with lone atrial fibrillation using delayed-enhanced MRI: implications for disease progression and response to catheter ablation, In Heart Rhythm, Vol. 7, No. 10, pp. 1475--1481. 2010.
PubMed ID: 20601148
T.A. Pilcher, J.D. Tate, J.G. Stinstra, E.V. Saarel, M.D. Puchalski, and R.S. MacLeod. Partially extracted defibrillator coils and pacing leads alter defibrillation thresholds, In Proceedings of the 15th International Academy of Cardiology World Congress of Cardiology, 2010.
K. Potter, J.M. Kniss, R. Riesenfeld, C.R. Johnson. Visualizing Summary Statistics and Uncertainty, In Computer Graphics Forum, Vol. 29, No. 3, Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 823--831. Aug, 2010.
N.M. Segerson, M. Daccarett, T.J. Badger, A. Shabaan, N. Akoum, E.N. Fish, S. Rao, N.S. Burgon, Y. Adjei-Poku, E. Kholmovski, S. Vijayakumar, E.V. DiBella, R.S. MacLeod, N.F. Marrouche.
Magnetic resonance imaging-confirmed ablative debulking of the left atrial posterior wall and septum for treatment of persistent atrial fibrillation: rationale and initial experience, In Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 126--132. 2010.
PubMed ID: 19804549