Designed especially for neurobiologists, FluoRender is an interactive tool for multi-channel fluorescence microscopy data visualization and analysis.
Deep brain stimulation
BrainStimulator is a set of networks that are used in SCIRun to perform simulations of brain stimulation such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and magnetic transcranial stimulation (TMS).
Developing software tools for science has always been a central vision of the SCI Institute.

SCI Publications

2021


P. Agrawal, R. T. Whitaker, S. Y. Elhabian. “Learning Deep Features for Shape Correspondence with Domain Invariance,” Subtitled “arXiv preprint arXiv:2102.10493,” 2021.

ABSTRACT

Correspondence-based shape models are key to various medical imaging applications that rely on a statistical analysis of anatomies. Such shape models are expected to represent consistent anatomical features across the population for population-specific shape statistics. Early approaches for correspondence placement rely on nearest neighbor search for simpler anatomies. Coordinate transformations for shape correspondence hold promise to address the increasing anatomical complexities. Nonetheless, due to the inherent shape-level geometric complexity and population-level shape variation, the coordinate-wise correspondence often does not translate to the anatomical correspondence. An alternative, group-wise approach for correspondence placement explicitly models the trade-off between geometric description and the population's statistical compactness. However, these models achieve limited success in resolving nonlinear shape correspondence. Recent works have addressed this limitation by adopting an application-specific notion of correspondence through lifting positional data to a higher dimensional feature space. However, they heavily rely on manual expertise to create domain-specific features and consistent landmarks. This paper proposes an automated feature learning approach, using deep convolutional neural networks to extract correspondence-friendly features from shape ensembles. Further, an unsupervised domain adaptation scheme is introduced to augment the pretrained geometric features with new anatomies. Results on anatomical datasets of human scapula, femur, and pelvis bones demonstrate that …



M. Berzins. “Symplectic Time Integration Methods for the Material Point Method, Experiments, Analysis and Order Reduction,” In WCCM-ECCOMAS2020 virtual Conference, January, 2021.

ABSTRACT

The provision of appropriate time integration methods for the Material Point Method (MPM) involves considering stability, accuracy and energy conservation. A class of methods that addresses many of these issues are the widely-used symplectic time integration methods. Such methods have good conservation properties and have the potential to achieve high accuracy. In this work we build on the work in [5] and consider high order methods for the time integration of the Material Point Method. The results of practical experiments show that while high order methods in both space and time have good accuracy initially, unless the problem has relatively little particle movement then the accuracy of the methods for later time is closer to that of low order methods. A theoretical analysis explains these results as being similar to the stage error found in Runge Kutta methods, though in this case the stage error arises from the MPM differentiations and interpolations from particles to grid and back again, particularly in cases in which there are many grid crossings.



S. R. Black, A. Janson, M. Mahan, J. Anderson, C. R. Butson. “Identification of Deep Brain Stimulation Targets for Neuropathic Pain After Spinal Cord Injury Using Localized Increases in White Matter Fiber Cross‐Section,” In Neuromodulation: Technology at the Neural Interface, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2021.

ABSTRACT

Objectives
The spinal cord injury (SCI) patient population is overwhelmingly affected by neuropathic pain (NP), a secondary condition for which therapeutic options are limited and have a low degree of efficacy. The objective of this study was to identify novel deep brain stimulation (DBS) targets that may theoretically benefit those with NP in the SCI patient population. We hypothesize that localized changes in white matter identified in SCI subjects with NP compared to those without NP could be used to develop an evidence‐based approach to DBS target identification.

Materials and Methods
To classify localized neurostructural changes associated with NP in the SCI population, we compared white matter fiber density (FD) and cross‐section (FC) between SCI subjects with NP (N = 17) and SCI subjects without NP (N = 15) using diffusion‐weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We then identified theoretical target locations for DBS using fiber bundles connected to significantly altered regions of white matter. Finally, we used computational models of DBS to determine if our theoretical target locations could be used to feasibly activate our fiber bundles of interest.
Results
We identified significant increases in FC in the splenium of the corpus callosum in pain subjects when compared to controls. We then isolated five fiber bundles that were directly connected to the affected region of white matter. Our models were able to predict that our fiber bundles of interest can be feasibly activated with DBS at reasonable stimulation amplitudes and with clinically relevant implantation approaches.
Conclusions
Altogether, we identified neuroarchitectural changes associated with NP in the SCI cohort and implemented a novel, evidence‐driven target selection approach for DBS to guide future research in neuromodulation treatment of NP after SCI.



K. M. Campbell, H. Dai, Z. Su, M. Bauer, P. T. Fletcher, S. C. Joshi. “Structural Connectome Atlas Construction in the Space of Riemannian Metrics,” Subtitled “arXiv,” 2021.

ABSTRACT

The structural connectome is often represented by fiber bundles generated from various types of tractography. We propose a method of analyzing connectomes by representing them as a Riemannian metric, thereby viewing them as points in an infinite-dimensional manifold. After equipping this space with a natural metric structure, the Ebin metric, weapply object-oriented statistical analysis to define an atlas as the Fŕechet mean of a population of Riemannian metrics. We demonstrate connectome registration and atlas formation using connectomes derived from diffusion tensors estimated from a subset of subjects from the Human Connectome Project.



S. H. Campbell, T. Bidone. “3D Model of Cell Migration and Proliferation in a Tissue Scaffold,” In Biophysical Journal, Vol. 120, No. 3, Elsevier, pp. 265a. 2021.

ABSTRACT

Tissue scaffolds restore tissue functionality without the limitations of transplants. However, successful tissue growth depends on the interplay between scaffold properties and cell activities. It has been previously reported that scaffold porosity and Young's modulus affect cell migration and tissue generation. However, how the geometrical and mechanical properties of a scaffold exactly interplay with cell processes remain poorly understood and are essential for successful tissue growth. We developed a 3D computational model that simulates cell migration and proliferation on a scaffold. The model generates an adjustable 3D porous scaffold environment with a defined pore size and Young modulus. Cells are treated as explicit spherical particles comparable in size to bone-marrow cells and are initially seeded randomly throughout the scaffold. Cells can create adhesions, proliferate, and independently migrate across pores in a random walk. Cell adhesions during migration follow the molecular-clutch mechanism, where traction force from the cells against the scaffold stiffness reinforces adhesions lifetime up to a threshold. We used the model to test how variations in cell proliferation rate, scaffold Young's modulus, and porosity affect cell migration speed. At a low proliferation rate (1 x 10−7 s−1), the spread of cell speeds is larger than at a high replication rate (1 x 10−6 s−1). A biphasic relation between Young's modulus and cell speed is also observed reflecting the molecular-clutch mechanism at the level of individual adhesions. These observations are consistent with previous reports regarding fibroblast migration on collagen-glycosaminoglycan scaffolds. Additionally, our model shows that similar cell diameters and pore diameter induces a crowding effect decreasing cell speed. The results from our study provide important insights about biophysical mechanisms that govern cell motility on scaffolds with different properties for tissue engineering applications.



Y. Chen, C. McNabb, T. Bidone. “Computational Model of E-cadherin Clustering under Cortical Tension,” In Biophysical Journal, Vol. 120, No. 3, Elsevier, pp. 236a. 2021.

ABSTRACT

E-cadherins are adhesion proteins that play a critical role in the formation of cell-cell junctions for several physiological processes, including tissue development and homeostasis. The formation of E-cadherin clusters involves extracellular trans-and cis-associations between cadherin ectodomains and stabilization through intracellular coupling with the contractile actomyosin cortex. The dynamic remodeling of cell-cell junctions largely depends on cortical tension, but previous modeling frameworks did not incorporate this effect. In order to gain insights into the effects of cortical tension on the dynamic properties of E-cadherin clusters, here we developed a computational model based on Brownian dynamics. The model considers individual cadherins as explicit point particles undergoing cycles of lateral diffusion on two parallel surfaces that mimic the membrane of neighboring cells. E-cadherins transit between …



E. Deelman, A. Mandal, A. P. Murillo, J. Nabrzyski, V. Pascucci, R. Ricci, I. Baldin, S. Sons, L. Christopherson, C. Vardeman, R. F. da Silva, J. Wyngaard, S. Petruzza, M. Rynge, K. Vahi, W. R. Whitcup, J. Drake, E. Scott. “Blueprint: Cyberinfrastructure Center of Excellence,” Subtitled “arXiv,” 2021.

ABSTRACT

In 2018, NSF funded an effort to pilot a Cyberinfrastructure Center of Excellence (CI CoE or Center) that would serve the cyberinfrastructure (CI) needs of the NSF Major Facilities (MFs) and large projects with advanced CI architectures. The goal of the CI CoE Pilot project (Pilot) effort was to develop a model and a blueprint for such a CoE by engaging with the MFs, understanding their CI needs, understanding the contributions the MFs are making to the CI community, and exploring opportunities for building a broader CI community. This document summarizes the results of community engagements conducted during the first two years of the project and describes the identified CI needs of the MFs. To better understand MFs' CI, the Pilot has developed and validated a model of the MF data lifecycle that follows the data generation and management within a facility and gained an understanding of how this model captures the fundamental stages that the facilities' data passes through from the scientific instruments to the principal investigators and their teams, to the broader collaborations and the public. The Pilot also aimed to understand what CI workforce development challenges the MFs face while designing, constructing, and operating their CI and what solutions they are exploring and adopting within their projects. Based on the needs of the MFs in the data lifecycle and workforce development areas, this document outlines a blueprint for a CI CoE that will learn about and share the CI solutions designed, developed, and/or adopted by the MFs, provide expertise to the largest NSF projects with advanced and complex CI architectures, and foster a …



W. W. Good, B. Zenger, J. A. Bergquist, L. C. Rupp, K. K. Gillette, M. A.F. Gsell, G. Plank, R. S. MacLeod. “Quantifying the spatiotemporal influence of acute myocardial ischemia on volumetric conduction velocity,” In Journal of Electrocardiology, Vol. 66, Churchill Livingstone, pp. 86-94. 2021.

ABSTRACT

Introduction
Acute myocardial ischemia occurs when coronary perfusion to the heart is inadequate, which can perturb the highly organized electrical activation of the heart and can result in adverse cardiac events including sudden cardiac death. Ischemia is known to influence the ST and repolarization phases of the ECG, but it also has a marked effect on propagation (QRS); however, studies investigating propagation during ischemia have been limited.

Methods
We estimated conduction velocity (CV) and ischemic stress prior to and throughout 20 episodes of experimentally induced ischemia in order to quantify the progression and correlation of volumetric conduction changes during ischemia. To estimate volumetric CV, we 1) reconstructed the activation wavefront; 2) calculated the elementwise gradient to approximate propagation direction; and 3) estimated conduction speed (CS) with an inverse-gradient technique.
Results
We found that acute ischemia induces significant conduction slowing, reducing the global median speed by 20 cm/s. We observed a biphasic response in CS (acceleration then deceleration) early in some ischemic episodes. Furthermore, we noted a high temporal correlation between ST-segment changes and CS slowing; however, when comparing these changes over space, we found only moderate correlation (corr. = 0.60).
Discussion
This study is the first to report volumetric CS changes (acceleration and slowing) during episodes of acute ischemia in the whole heart. We showed that while CS changes progress in a similar time course to ischemic stress (measured by ST-segment shifts), the spatial overlap is complex and variable, showing extreme conduction slowing both in and around regions experiencing severe ischemia.



W. W. Good, K. Gillette, B. Zenger, J. Bergquist, L. C. Rupp, J. D. Tate, D. Anderson, M. Gsell, G. Plank, R. S. Macleod. “Estimation and validation of cardiac conduction velocity and wavefront reconstruction using epicardial and volumetric data,” In IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, IEEE, 2021.
DOI: 10.1109/TBME.2021.3069792

ABSTRACT

Objective: In this study, we have used whole heart simulations parameterized with large animal experiments to validate three techniques (two from the literature and one novel) for estimating epicardial and volumetric conduction velocity (CV). Methods: We used an eikonal-based simulation model to generate ground truth activation sequences with prescribed CVs. Using the sampling density achieved experimentally we examined the accuracy with which we could reconstruct the wavefront, and then examined the robustness of three CV estimation techniques to reconstruction related error. We examined a triangulation-based, inverse-gradient-based, and streamline-based techniques for estimating CV cross the surface and within the volume of the heart. Results: The reconstructed activation times agreed closely with simulated values, with 50-70% of the volumetric nodes and 97-99% of the epicardial nodes were within 1 ms of the ground truth. We found close agreement between the CVs calculated using reconstructed versus ground truth activation times, with differences in the median estimated CV on the order of 3-5% volumetrically and 1-2% superficially, regardless of what technique was used. Conclusion: Our results indicate that the wavefront reconstruction and CV estimation techniques are accurate, allowing us to examine changes in propagation induced by experimental interventions such as acute ischemia, ectopic pacing, or drugs. Significance: We implemented, validated, and compared the performance of a number of CV estimation techniques. The CV estimation techniques implemented in this study produce accurate, high-resolution CV fields that can be used to study propagation in the heart experimentally and clinically.



A. A. Gooch, S. Petruzza, A. Gyulassy, G. Scorzelli, V. Pascucci, L. Rantham, W. Adcock, C. Coopmans. “Lessons learned towards the immediate delivery of massive aerial imagery to farmers and crop consultants,” In Autonomous Air and Ground Sensing Systems for Agricultural Optimization and Phenotyping VI, Vol. 11747, International Society for Optics and Photonics, pp. 22 -- 34. 2021.
DOI: 10.1117/12.2587694

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we document lessons learned from using ViSOAR Ag Explorer™ in the fields of Arkansas and Utah in the 2018-2020 growing seasons. Our insights come from creating software with fast reading and writing of 2D aerial image mosaics for platform-agnostic collaborative analytics and visualization. We currently enable stitching in the field on a laptop without the need for an internet connection. The full resolution result is then available for instant streaming visualization and analytics via Python scripting. While our software, ViSOAR Ag Explorer™ removes the time and labor software bottleneck in processing large aerial surveys, enabling a cost-effective process to deliver actionable information to farmers, we learned valuable lessons with regard to the acquisition, storage, viewing, analysis, and planning stages of aerial data surveys. Additionally, with the ultimate goal of stitching thousands of images in minutes on board a UAV at the time of data capture, we performed preliminary tests for on-board, real-time stitching and analysis on USU AggieAir sUAS using lightweight computational resources. This system is able to create a 2D map while flying and allow interactive exploration of the full resolution data as soon as the platform has landed or has access to a network. This capability further speeds up the assessment process on the field and opens opportunities for new real-time photogrammetry applications. Flying and imaging over 1500-2000 acres per week provides up-to-date maps that give crop consultants a much broader scope of the field in general as well as providing a better view into planting and field preparation than could be observed from field level. Ultimately, our software and hardware could provide a much better understanding of weed presence and intensity or lack thereof.



J. K. Holmen, D. Sahasrabudhe, M. Berzins. “A Heterogeneous MPI+PPL Task Scheduling Approach for Asynchronous Many-Task Runtime Systems,” In Proceedings of the Practice and Experience in Advanced Research Computing 2021 on Sustainability, Success and Impact (PEARC21), ACM, 2021.

ABSTRACT

Asynchronous many-task runtime systems and MPI+X hybrid parallelism approaches have shown promise for helping manage theincreasing complexity of nodes in current and emerging high performance computing (HPC) systems, including those for exascale. Theincreasing architectural diversity, however, poses challenges for large legacy runtime systems emphasizing broad support for majorHPC systems. Performance portability layers (PPL) have shown promise for helping manage this diversity. This paper describes aheterogeneous MPI+PPL task scheduling approach for combining these promising solutions with additional consideration for parallelthird party libraries facing similar challenges to help prepare such a runtime for the diverse heterogeneous systems accompanyingexascale computing. This approach is demonstrated using a heterogeneous MPI+Kokkos task scheduler and the accompanyingportable abstractions [15] implemented in the Uintah Computational Framework, an asynchronous many-task runtime system, withadditional consideration for hypre, a parallel third party library. Results are shown for two challenging problems executing workloadsrepresentative of typical Uintah applications. These results show performance improvements up to 4.4x when using this schedulerand the accompanying portable abstractions [15] to port a previously MPI-Only problem to Kokkos::OpenMP and Kokkos::CUDA toimprove multi-socket, multi-device node use. Good strong-scaling to 1,024 NVIDIA V100 GPUs and 512 IBM POWER9 processor arealso shown using MPI+Kokkos::OpenMP+Kokkos::CUDA at scale



R. Kamali, J. Kump, E. Ghafoori, M. Lange, N. Hu, T. J. Bunch, D. J. Dosdall, R. S. Macleod, R. Ranjan. “Area Available for Atrial Fibrillation to Propagate Is an Important Determinant of Recurrence After Ablation,” In JACC: Clinical Electrophysiology, Elsevier, 2021.

ABSTRACT

This study sought to evaluate atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation outcomes based on scar patterns and contiguous area available for AF wavefronts to propagate.



V. Keshavarzzadeh, M. Alirezaei, T. Tasdizen, R. M. Kirby. “Image-Based Multiresolution Topology Optimization Using Deep Disjunctive Normal Shape Model,” In Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 130, Elsevier, pp. 102947. 2021.

ABSTRACT

We present a machine learning framework for predicting the optimized structural topology design susing multiresolution data. Our approach primarily uses optimized designs from inexpensive coarse mesh finite element simulations for model training and generates high resolution images associated with simulation parameters that are not previously used. Our cost-efficient approach enables the designers to effectively search through possible candidate designs in situations where the design requirements rapidly change. The underlying neural network framework is based on a deep disjunctive normal shape model (DDNSM) which learns the mapping between the simulation parameters and segments of multi resolution images. Using this image-based analysis we provide a practical algorithm which enhances the predictability of the learning machine by determining a limited number of important parametric samples(i.e.samples of the simulation parameters)on which the high resolution training data is generated. We demonstrate our approach on benchmark compliance minimization problems including the 3D topology optimization where we show that the high-fidelity designs from the learning machine are close to optimal designs and can be used as effective initial guesses for the large-scale optimization problem.



D Kouřil, T Isenberg, B Kozlíková, M Meyer, E Gröller, I Viola. “HyperLabels---Browsing of Dense and Hierarchical Molecular 3D Models,” In IEEE transactions on visualization and computer graphics, IEEE, 2021.
DOI: 10.1109/TVCG.2020.2975583

ABSTRACT

We present a method for the browsing of hierarchical 3D models in which we combine the typical navigation of hierarchical structures in a 2D environment---using clicks on nodes, links, or icons---with a 3D spatial data visualization. Our approach is motivated by large molecular models, for which the traditional single-scale navigational metaphors are not suitable. Multi-scale phenomena, e. g., in astronomy or geography, are complex to navigate due to their large data spaces and multi-level organization. Models from structural biology are in addition also densely crowded in space and scale. Cutaways are needed to show individual model subparts. The camera has to support exploration on the level of a whole virus, as well as on the level of a small molecule. We address these challenges by employing HyperLabels: active labels that---in addition to their annotational role---also support user interaction. Clicks on HyperLabels select the next structure to be explored. Then, we adjust the visualization to showcase the inner composition of the selected subpart and enable further exploration. Finally, we use a breadcrumbs panel for orientation and as a mechanism to traverse upwards in the model hierarchy. We demonstrate our concept of hierarchical 3D model browsing using two exemplary models from meso-scale biology.



L. Kühnel, T. Fletcher, S. Joshi, S. Sommer. “Latent Space Geometric Statistics,” In Pattern Recognition. ICPR International Workshops and Challenges: Virtual Event, January 10–15, 2021, Proceedings, Part VI, Springer International Publishing, pp. 163-178. 2021.

ABSTRACT

Deep generative models, e.g., variational autoencoders and generative adversarial networks, result in latent representation of observed data. The low dimensionality of the latent space provides an ideal setting for analysing high-dimensional data that would otherwise often be infeasible to handle statistically. The linear Euclidean geometry of the high-dimensional data space pulls back to a nonlinear Riemannian geometry on latent space where classical linear statistical techniques are no longer applicable. We show how analysis of data in their latent space representation can be performed using techniques from the field of geometric statistics. Geometric statistics provide generalisations of Euclidean statistical notions including means, principal component analysis, and maximum likelihood estimation of parametric distributions. Introduction to estimation procedures on latent space are considered, and the …



Z. Li, H. Menon, K. Mohror, P. T. Bremer, Y. Livant, V. Pascucci. “Understanding a program's resiliency through error propagation,” In Proceedings of the 26th ACM SIGPLAN Symposium on Principles and Practice of Parallel Programming, ACM, pp. 362-373. 2021.

ABSTRACT

Aggressive technology scaling trends have worsened the transient fault problem in high-performance computing (HPC) systems. Some faults are benign, but others can lead to silent data corruption (SDC), which represents a serious problem; a fault introducing an error that is not readily detected nto an HPC simulation. Due to the insidious nature of SDCs, researchers have worked to understand their impact on applications. Previous studies have relied on expensive fault injection campaigns with uniform sampling to provide overall SDC rates, but this solution does not provide any feedback on the code regions without samples.



Q. C Nguyen, J. M. Keralis, P. Dwivedi, A. E. Ng, M. Javanmardi, S. Khanna, Y. Huang, K. D. Brunisholz, A. Kumar, T. Tasdizen. “Leveraging 31 Million Google Street View Images to Characterize Built Environments and Examine County Health Outcomes ,” In Public Health Reports, Vol. 136, No. 2, SAGE Publications, pp. 201-211. 2021.
DOI: doi.org/10.1177/0033354920968799

ABSTRACT

Objectives
Built environments can affect health, but data in many geographic areas are limited. We used a big data source to create national indicators of neighborhood quality and assess their associations with health.

Methods
We leveraged computer vision and Google Street View images accessed from December 15, 2017, through July 17, 2018, to detect features of the built environment (presence of a crosswalk, non–single-family home, single-lane roads, and visible utility wires) for 2916 US counties. We used multivariate linear regression models to determine associations between features of the built environment and county-level health outcomes (prevalence of adult obesity, prevalence of diabetes, physical inactivity, frequent physical and mental distress, poor or fair self-rated health, and premature death [in years of potential life lost]).
Results
Compared with counties with the least number of crosswalks, counties with the most crosswalks were associated with decreases of 1.3%, 2.7%, and 1.3% of adult obesity, physical inactivity, and fair or poor self-rated health, respectively, and 477 fewer years of potential life lost before age 75 (per 100 000 population). The presence of non–single-family homes was associated with lower levels of all health outcomes except for premature death. The presence of single-lane roads was associated with an increase in physical inactivity, frequent physical distress, and fair or poor self-rated health. Visible utility wires were associated with increases in adult obesity, diabetes, physical and mental distress, and fair or poor self-rated health.
Conclusions
The use of computer vision and big data image sources makes possible national studies of the built environm



C. Nobre, D. Wootton, Z. T. Cutler, L. Harrison, H. Pfister, A. Lex. “reVISit: Looking Under the Hood of Interactive Visualization Studies,” In SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI), ACM, pp. 1--12. 2021.
DOI: 10.31219/osf.io/cbw36

ABSTRACT

Quantifying user performance with metrics such as time and accuracy does not show the whole picture when researchers evaluate complex, interactive visualization tools. In such systems, performance is often influenced by different analysis strategies that statistical analysis methods cannot account for. To remedy this lack of nuance, we propose a novel analysis methodology for evaluating complex interactive visualizations at scale. We implement our analysis methods in reVISit, which enables analysts to explore participant interaction performance metrics and responses in the context of users' analysis strategies. Replays of participant sessions can aid in identifying usability problems during pilot studies and make individual analysis processes salient. To demonstrate the applicability of reVISit to visualization studies, we analyze participant data from two published crowdsourced studies. Our findings show that reVISit can be used to reveal and describe novel interaction patterns, to analyze performance differences between different analysis strategies, and to validate or challenge design decisions.



N. Ramesh, T. Tasdizen. “Detection and segmentation in microscopy images,” In Computer Vision for Microscopy Image Analysis, Academic Press, pp. 43-71. 2021.
DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-814972-0.00003-5

ABSTRACT

The plethora of heterogeneous data generated using modern microscopy imaging techniques eliminates the possibility of manual image analysis for biologists. Consequently, reliable and robust computerized techniques are critical to analyze microscopy data. Detection problems in microscopy images focuses on accurately identifying the objects of interest in an image that can be used to investigate hypotheses about developmental or pathological processes and can be indicative of prognosis in patients. Detection is also considered to be the preliminary step for solving subsequent problems, such as segmentation and tracking for various biological applications. Segmentation of the desired structures and regions in microscopy images require pixel-level labels to uniquely identify the individual structures and regions with contours for morphological and physiological analysis. Distributions of features extracted from the segmented regions can be used to compare normal versus disease or normal versus wild-type populations. Segmentation can be considered as a precursor for solving classification, reconstruction, and tracking problems in microscopy images. In this chapter, we discuss how the field of microscopic image analysis has progressed over the years, starting with traditional approaches and then followed by the study of learning algorithms. Because there is a lot of variability in microscopy data, it is essential to study learning algorithms that can adapt to these changes. We focus on deep learning approaches with convolutional neural networks (CNNs), as well as hierarchical methods for segmentation and detection in optical and electron microscopy images. Limitation of training data is one of the significant problems; hence, we explore solutions to learn better models with minimal user annotations.



J. Salinet, R. Molero, F. S. Schlindwein, J. Karel, M. Rodrigo, J. L. Rojo-Álvarez, O. Berenfeld, A. M. Climent, B. Zenger, F. Vanheusden, J. G. S. Paredes, R. MacLeod, F. Atienza, M. S. Guillem, M. Cluitmans, P. Bonizzi. “Electrocardiographic imaging for atrial fibrillation: a perspective from computer models and animal experiments to clinical value,” In Frontiers in Physiology, Vol. 12, Frontiers Media, April, 2021.
DOI: 10.3389/fphys.2021.653013

ABSTRACT

Salinet et al. Electrocardiographic Imaging for Atrial Fibrillation treatment guidance (for example, localization of AF triggers and sustaining mechanisms), and we discuss the technological requirements and validation. We address experimental and clinical results, limitations, and future challenges for fruitful application of ECGI for AF understanding and management. We pay attention to existing techniques and clinical application, to computer models and (animal or human) experiments, to challenges of methodological and clinical validation. The overall objective of the study is to provide a consensus on valuable directions that ECGI research may take to provide future improvements in AF characterization and treatment guidance.