B. Erem, R.M. Orellana, D.E. Hyde, J.M. Peters, F.H. Duffy, P. Stovicek, S.K. Warfield, R.S. MacLeod, G. Tadmor, D.H. Brooks.
Extensions to a manifold learning framework for time-series analysis on dynamic manifolds in bioelectric signals, In Physical Review E, Vol. 93, No. 4, American Physical Society, apr, 2016.
This paper addresses the challenge of extracting meaningful information from measured bioelectric signals generated by complex, large scale physiological systems such as the brain or the heart. We focus on a combination of the well-known Laplacian eigenmaps machine learning approach with dynamical systems ideas to analyze emergent dynamic behaviors. The method reconstructs the abstract dynamical system phase-space geometry of the embedded measurements and tracks changes in physiological conditions or activities through changes in that geometry. It is geared to extract information from the joint behavior of time traces obtained from large sensor arrays, such as those used in multiple-electrode ECG and EEG, and explore the geometrical structure of the low dimensional embedding of moving time windows of those joint snapshots. Our main contribution is a method for mapping vectors from the phase space to the data domain. We present cases to evaluate the methods, including a synthetic example using the chaotic Lorenz system, several sets of cardiac measurements from both canine and human hearts, and measurements from a human brain.
B. Erem, J. Coll-Font, R.M. Orellana, P. Stovicek, D.H. Brooks.
Using transmural regularization and dynamic modeling for noninvasive cardiac potential imaging of endocardial pacing with imprecise thoracic geometry, In IEEE Trans Med Imaging, Vol. 33, No. 3, pp. 726--738. 2014.
PubMed ID: 24595345
PubMed Central ID: PMC3950945
Cardiac electrical imaging from body surface potential measurements is increasingly being seen as a technology with the potential for use in the clinic, for example for pre-procedure planning or during-treatment guidance for ventricular arrhythmia ablation procedures. However several important impediments to widespread adoption of this technology remain to be effectively overcome. Here we address two of these impediments: the difficulty of reconstructing electric potentials on the inner (endocardial) as well as outer (epicardial) surfaces of the ventricles, and the need for full anatomical imaging of the subject's thorax to build an accurate subject-specific geometry. We introduce two new features in our reconstruction algorithm: a nonlinear low-order dynamic parameterization derived from the measured body surface signals, and a technique to jointly regularize both surfaces. With these methodological innovations in combination, it is possible to reconstruct endocardial activation from clinically acquired measurements with an imprecise thorax geometry. In particular we test the method using body surface potentials acquired from three subjects during clinical procedures where the subjects' hearts were paced on their endocardia using a catheter device. Our geometric models were constructed using a set of CT scans limited in axial extent to the immediate region near the heart. The catheter system provides a reference location to which we compare our results. We compare our estimates of pacing site localization, in terms of both accuracy and stability, to those reported in a recent clinical publication , where a full set of CT scans were available and only epicardial potentials were reconstructed.
B. Erem, J. Coll-Font, R.M. Orellana, P. Stovicek, D.H. Brooks, R.S. MacLeod.
Noninvasive reconstruction of potentials on endocardial surface from body surface potentials and CT imaging of partial torso, In Journal of Electrocardiology, Vol. 46, No. 4, pp. e28. 2013.
B. Erem, R.M. Orellana, P. Stovicek, D.H. Brooks, R.S. MacLeod.
Improved averaging of multi-lead ECGs and electrograms, In Journal of Electrocardiology, Vol. 46, No. 4, Elsevier, pp. e28. July, 2013.
B. Erem, P. Stovicek, D.H. Brooks.
Manifold learning for analysis of low-order nonlinear dynamics in high-dimensional electrocardiographic signals, In Proceedings of the 9th IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI), pp. 844--847. 2012.
The dynamical structure of electrical recordings from the heart or torso surface is a valuable source of information about cardiac physiological behavior. In this paper, we use an existing data-driven technique for manifold identification to reveal electrophysiologically significant changes in the underlying dynamical structure of these signals. Our results suggest that this analysis tool characterizes and differentiates important parameters of cardiac bioelectric activity through their dynamic behavior, suggesting the potential to serve as an effective dynamic constraint in the context of inverse solutions.