Complete End to End Simulation Including Fire and Container
These images depict a complete end to end simulation run by the University of Utah's Center for the Simulation of Accidental Fires and Explosions (C-SAFE). Visualized is a sectional view of the rupturing of a steel container that is filled with a plastic bonded explosive and heated by a fire. The structural response of the container and the solid explosive is modeled using the Material Point Method (MPM). The fire and products of reaction of the explosive are modeled using a multi-material version of the Implicit Compressible Eulerian (ICE) CFD algorithm. This highly coupled multi-physics integrated simulation consists of three phases, all run by a single program. The first phase is the simulation of the fire, which runs for a period of time sufficient to compute a spatially resolved, time averaged rate of heat transfer to the container. Using this heat transfer rate, the simulation switches to the second phase (the heat up phase). During the heat up phase, the heat generated by the fire is absorbed by the container and transferred to the explosive. This phase of the simulation lasts on the order of tens of minutes. When the explosive temperature reaches approximately 450 degrees kelvin, it begins to react, rapidly pressurizing the container. At this point, the simulation switches to the third phase (the explosion phase). The explosion phase lasts several milliseconds. The simulation terminates when fragments of the cylinder escape the computational domain. The final result of the simulation, as depicted here, was calculated using 146 hours of computation time on 600 processors utilizing both the ALC and Thunder computers at Lawrence Livermore National Lab. The data from 200 time steps of this simulation, including the 2.8 million particles per time step, was visualized interactively using the Real Time Ray Tracer (RTRT) on 60 processors of an SGI Origin 3800. The particles are colored based on temperature; particle size corresponds to particle mass.